Having covered general methods in part one and specific world-building approaches in part two, in this final series installment we shall be looking towards niche cartographic terminology which can be used to build upon cardinal directionality and which also serves to better elucidate the reader (or the forgetful author) as to the general-to-precise spatial arrangements within a given scene.
Distal and proximal: distal means furthest away from, whilst proximal means closest to. The terms are generally used for anatomical reference but can also be used to great effect in geographic spaces.
Latitude: the distance of a point north or south of the equator is its latitude. On a map, latitudes are represented by lines which ring the globe and are known are parallels (ie. the 45th parallel is 45 degrees north of Earth’s equator).
Longitude: the distance of a point on a globe which runs at right angles through lines of latitude that also pass through the poles are known as meridians of longitude. On a map, lines of longitude run north-south from a prime meridian (such as the Greenwich meridian).
Planimetric: that which has only horizonticality and no verticality or that which symbolically represents horizonticality (such as a map) which does not indicate verticality. Distinct from topology due a lack of relief.
Topology: the underlying structure of a general area; the properties of a space that remain constant under natural or artificial depredations. Topologies primarily accentuate horizontal qualities but also suggest vertical qualities (such as through contour lines in a military map).